Former Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein has made an outspoken attack on the judicial process as his trial for crimes against humanity began.
He and seven associates are charged with ordering the killing of 143 Shia men in 1982 in Dujail.
He refused to confirm his identity, and questioned the validity of the trial and the presiding judge’s fitness.
The televised trial is being heard in the heavily fortified Green Zone in the Iraqi capital, Baghdad.
TV pictures showed Saddam Hussein and his co-defendants being led into pens in the courtroom.